Far-sightedness is a condition of the eye(s), also referred to as hyperopia, hypermetropia, and longsightedness. With this condition, instead of light being focused directly on the retina, it is focused towards the area behind it. Resulting in the appearance of objects that are up close to being blurry, and the objects at a distance are left to appear as they would normally. All objects, regardless of the distance may appear blurry as this condition continues to worsen. There are other symptoms, they include: strain on the eye(s) and headaches, and some people have also experienced symptoms such as binocular dysfunction, accommodative dysfunction, strabismus, and amblyopia.
Having an imperfection within the eye(s) is what causes this, and too often it will happen should the eyeball be shorter than it should be, or if the lens of the eye or the cornea does not have the correct shape. There are risk factors to consider, such as the patient’s family having a history of having the condition, specific medications, diabetes, and tumors being in the general area of the eye(s). This condition falls under the category of being a refractive error.
The following are several signs and symptoms
If a person starts to experience their vision being blurry, it can be a clear sign that they are becoming far-sighted. There are several other common symptoms that may be noticed as well, including eyestrain or headaches. Although, straining the eyes is among the leading signs because it can cause additional tension to be applied to focusing of the eye. Meanwhile, there is a chance that binocular vision occurs, which can make it very difficult to see out of both eyes at the same time. It can also alter depth perception.
Since hyperopia comes from the visual imaging which is focused at the back of the retina, there are two primary causes:
- Weak converging power from the eye(s) lens which is creating a weaker reaction from the ciliary muscles.
- Due to the cornea having an abnormal shape.
It is a condition that is often present at the time of birth, however, since at this age a child has very flexible lens in the eye(s), and this helps with compensating. There are rare instances when diabetes can cause hyperopia, and other problems involved with the blood vessels within the retina area.
A eye doctor can utilize an automated refractor objective refraction or a retinoscope in order to diagnose condition, or they can go with a trial frame or a phoropter in order to perform a subjective examination. Eye doctors also use ancillary testing on abnormal structures, including physiology, which they can perform through slit lamp testing, in order to examine the cornea, anterior chamber, iris, and conjunctiva. There are more severe cases where the hyperopia is present at the time of birth, and the brain makes it very difficult to bring together images which an individual eye will be able to see. The reason for this is that, when the brain receives an image from an individual eye, it is always blurry. A child that has severe hyperopia will never be able to see the details of an object, because the brain will never have the chance to learn how to see the details of an object, the chances are that one of the eyes will become dominant over the other. In fact, this will result in the brain blocking out the non-dominating eyes impulses. In contrast, if a child has myopia, they will be able to see the details of the objects up close, and they learn early on to see an objects details.
The complications with far-sightedness
Strabismus and amblyopia are rare complications stemming from this condition. If this condition should become very severe for the child at an early age it can cause them to start having double vision, which comes from ‘over-focusing’.
How hyperopia is classified
According to the clinical appearance, how severe it is, and/or the way that it relates to the accommodative status of the eye(s).
Hyperopia has three different clinical categories, they are as follows:
- Functional: This category means that it was brought on by paralysis which was interfering with the eye’s capability of accommodating.
- Simple: In this category it means that it has occurred because of a biological diversity.
- Pathological: In this category means it was cause from disease, abnormal development, or trauma.
It’s Severity also has three different categories
- Low: This category it means that its error is less than or equal to that of +2.00 diopters (D).
- Moderate: In this category, it is telling you that the error is more than +2.00 D, and can go all the way to +5.00 D.
- High: Here, it means that the error is more than +5.00 D.
Some more common types of these errors would be astigmatism, presbyopia, and near-sightedness.
Methods of treatment for far-sightedness:
- Corrective lenses
- Contact lenses
The eyeglasses used for correcting this condition are made with convex lenses.
Surgery as a method of treatment
There are several different surgeries available, they are as follows:
- Refractor lens exchange (RLE): This surgery provides a means of replacing the natural crystalline lens, and instead of the eye(s) having its original lens, it will have in an artificial intraocular lens in its place. The artificial lens will not consist of any abnormal ocular anatomy, which is what has been causing the higher refractive error.
- Photorefractive Keratectomy: There will be a minimal amount of the surface in the corneal area removed.
- Situ keratomileusis that is assisted by laser (LASIK): A surgery that uses laser in the reshaping of the cornea in order to eliminate the use for contact lenses and/or glasses.
- Laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK): Similar to the PRK, except that alcohol is used for to make the corneal surface loosen up.