Other words that refer to the same thing are myopia and near-sighted. This condition is a disorder of the eye(s) that instead of letting the light focus upon the retina itself, as it should, is focused in the front of it. Which makes objects that are up close appear to be normal, yet, when those exact same objects are seen at a distance, they will appear blurry. Some other symptoms which may occur are strains on the eye(s) and headaches. The risks are increased when the condition is severe, such as cataracts, retinal detachment, and glaucoma.

A combination of genetic factors and different factors of the environment have been thought to be the underlying cause. With many risk factors, which include spending more time enjoying the outdoors, working with objects up-close, and family histories that consist of having the condition. Furthermore, it is also thought that this condition may be associated to living in a higher social economic class. An underlying mechanism that consists of the eyeball(s) growing at a length that is longer than necessary. This is often the case if the lens of the eyes are shorter than it should be. This condition falls under the category of being a refractive error, and it can be diagnosed by having an eye examination.

There has been tentative evidence which has indicated that children who spend more time outside of the home will reduce the risk of ever getting this condition. It is an indication that exposure to natural light is somehow linked to it. However, this is another condition that can be corrected with the wearing of contact lenses, eyeglasses, or surgery. For the quickest and safest method of correcting the problem, and also the easy and less expensive, it would be to choose the eyeglasses. Although wearing contacts will give the wearer a broader field of vision, keep in mind that it is associated to taking a risk of getting an infection. Whereas, there is a method that consists of refractive surgery and it will change the shape of the cornea permanently.

It has been estimated that 1.5 billion people, which is 22% of the world’s population, who will be afflicted with this common condition. That percentage will vary greatly in different regions around the world. The fact is, there are as many 15% to 49% of adults who are afflicted, with those percentage being similar of both male and females. The percentage for children is as follows: the condition is affecting 1% in the rural areas of Nepalese, in South Africans by 4%, Americans by 12%, and in many of the larger Chinese cities there are as many as 37% being affected. These percentages have been increasing since the 1950’s. The condition of near-sightedness is the most common to go without being corrected, which leads to the common reason for there to be vision impairment all around the world, in fact, near-sightedness, macular degeneration, and cataracts, including vitamin A deficiency is due to being uncorrected globally.

The signs and symptoms

An individual who has myopia will be able to see things clear for a specific distance, however, anything further than that will appear as a blur. Whenever it extends to a great distance it will affect the standard reading distances. With regular routine examinations, the majority of eye(s) with myopia appear identical in structure to those eye(s) that are non-myopia. Where there are cases having a higher amount of this condition, there sometimes can be seen through a fundoscopic examination if there is any staphyloma. Since having an increase of the eye(s)axial length being a significant cause for myopia, for retina has to be able to stretch and cover all of the areas surface. This results in the retina of the patients with this condition becoming thinner than it should be and eventually developing retinal holes, including lattice degeneration within its periphery. Whenever there is a higher amount of myopia it increases risks of there being retinal tears, including being detached.


Under normal circumstances, the development of the eye(s) is generally controlled genetically, however, it has been proven that the visual environment plays an important factor when it comes to determining the development of the ocular. There have been several researches that have suggested that for many cases of this condition it is possible to have been inherited from a parent.

The hypothesis of “Near work”

A hypothesis that has also been referred to as ‘use abuse theory’ which states that “time spent doing work up close put a strain on the eye(s), which in return, makes the risk of myopia increase.” While there are several studies that are supporting this theory, yet others that will not support it.

The hypothesis on visual stimuli

In order to explain myopia’s modern prevalence there has been, yet another layer of mismatch added with the visual stimuli of hypothesis, though mutually exclusive when it comes to the any of the others presented here. If the eye(s) does not receive a normal number of visual stimuli, the development of an improper eyeball can occur. In cases such as this, it is referring to normal as the environmental stimuli that has been around for more than a hundred million years, and include things like natural environments that are diverse, such as the jungles, forests, oceans, and the Savannah Plains, including some other wonderful visual environments. In this day and age of advanced technology, people are spending a majority of their time indoors, either at their computer, gaming console, or television, with dim lights, or in buildings having fluorescent lighting, all of which are not appropriate as stimuli for the eye(s) and this could quite possibly be contributing to the development of this condition. Researchers have shown that people, significantly children, that are outside more, getting plenty of physical exercise and being involved in other activities that take place outdoors do not have as high a rate for myopia as those who do not spend much time outside.